In a previous article, we saw what the WordPress Links Manager is, how to access it, and how to use it to manage a sorted list of links. We also learnt how to display our links, thanks to the default widget.
However, this widget is not perfect: while it is more than enough to display a basic blogroll, we can’t do all we want to do with it. In the next two articles, we will see how to use the Links Manager API to display our links. In this article, we will focus on describing the main function of the API, before learning how to use the other functions in the next article.
A Function to List Our Links
We find several functions in the Links Manager API. However, we won’t use all of them. In fact, if you have already seen some code that uses this API, you might also have seen the use of one the following three functions:
wp_get_links(). You shouldn’t use these functions: they are all deprecated.
The function we will study in this article is
wp_list_bookmarks(). All it does is display your links in the shape of a list, but some options allow us to customize the result and that’s why this function is so interesting.
Basically, you can use the
wp_list_bookmarks() function without giving it any argument. It will then display all the categories, one after another. For each of these categories, it displays an unordered list with the different links with their image. Without any customization in the
wp_list_bookmarks() function or even in the CSS, we see the result below.
The default widget, on the left, has a better result. Let’s see the different available options to personalize our display.
Personalizing the Output
wp_list_bookmarks() function admits only one argument: an array listing all the options we want to customize. We will here separate these options into two categories: those which concern the data by themselves (such as how to retrieve a given category, or how to sort the links) and those which concern the display (such as which title to display).
Customizing the Data
Choosing the Categories
If you want to display links in several places, chances are great that you will want to choose one specific category to display in each place. That can be achieved thanks to the
category option. As it is the first option we see, an example will be clearer, so I have included one below.
$args = array( 'category' => '4,5' ); wp_list_bookmarks($args);
Thanks to the argument sent to the
wp_list_bookmarks() function, we only display two categories, identified by their ID. Here, you can indicate the IDs you want, separated by a comma. By default, this option is set to
' ' to display all the categories.
If you prefer, instead of listing the categories you want to display, you can list the ones you want to hide with the option
exclude_category. As in the previous option, its value is a list of categories IDs to hide. By default, no category is hidden thanks to the value
The ID of a category is not always practical to use. That’s why you can use the option
category_name. By default, its value is
' ' and all the categories are shown, but you can indicate the name of a category, so that only this category shows.
$args = array( 'category_name' => 'tools' );
Note that this option accepts the name of a category, and not its slug. The value of this option is case-insensitive: the example above works while my category is named “Tools“. Finally, you should know that you can’t define a list of categories to show with this option: only one name is accepted. So, if you want to display several categories, you must use the
In the case that your scripts don’t care about the categories, and you want to show all the links, regardless of their category, you can set the
categorize option to
false. Once this is set, it will not sort the links depending on their category. Instead, With this option, you will see all the links, in a fake category named “Bookmarks“.
You can combine the option
categorize with the others. For example, you can choose to only display the categories
category, but not show that they are in different categories if you set the option
$args = array( 'category' => '4,5', 'categorize' => false );
Choosing the Order
If you tried the
category option with more than one ID, you should notice that WordPress automatically sorted the output. You can indicate
'5,4', and the order will always be the same, unless you use another option.
This option is
category_orderby. By default, categories are shown in alphabetical order thanks to the default value
name. You can choose to sort categories by their ID with the value
id, by their slug with the value
slug, or by the number of links they contain with the value
A second option, named
category_order, allows you to reverse the order by choosing the value
DESC. By default, this option is set to
ASC and the order is not reversed.
The example below displays two categories: the first category is the one which contains the greatest number of links.
$args = array( 'category' => '5,6', 'category_orderby' => 'count', 'category_order' => 'DESC' );
Analog options can be found to sort the links by themselves. Thanks to the
orderby option, you can, in fact, choose how links are sorted. A lot of values are accepted, and you can use several values (separated by a comma), which can be useful if two links are considered ‘equal’ by the first chosen order.
You can sort your links using their ID with
link_id or their URL with
url. Their name can also be used; with
name, links are alphabetically sorted and, with
length, they are sorted in function of the length of their name. Thanks to the
owner value, you can sort the links following the user who added them.
Some values are less useful than others: you can sort the links following their target (
target), their description (
description), their attached notes (
notes), their RSS address (
rss) or even the value of their
rel attribute (
You can also choose to sort your links using the rating you have assigned to them (
rating). A more interesting value is
updated: it sorts the links following the last time the page they point to were updated. Finally, if you don’t want to use a specific order, the
rand value can be used.
By default, links are sorted following their name. You can reverse this order, or any other you chose, by indicating
DESC in the
If you have a lot of links and only want to display a given number of them, you can indicate this number in the
limit option. By default, it is set to
-1 and shows all the links.
Below is an example which combines several options outlined above. It displays two categories with the order we defined in the previous example. Into these categories, links are sorted following their rating: the order is reversed to show the greatest rating in first. Moreover, we don’t show more than five links by category.
$args = array( // Sort the categories 'category' => '5,6', 'category_orderby' => 'count', 'category_order' => 'DESC', // Sort the links 'orderby' => 'rating', 'order' => 'DESC', 'limit' => 5 );
Displaying the Hidden Links
When you add a new link, you can decide to keep it private. WordPress’ default widget doesn’t show private links, but your scripts can, thanks to an option in
hide_invisible. This option is a boolean. By default, it is set to
true and hides private links, but you can set it to
false and it will show all your links, even if some of them are private.
// Show me all the links, even the private ones! $args( 'hide_invisible' => false );
Note that if your script can be used by other WordPress users apart from you (for example, if your script is included in a theme or plugin that others can use), you should warn these users that your script displays private links, as it is not really a behavior we expect.
Customizing the Display
An option called
echo allows you to decide if
wp_list_bookmarks() must return (
false) or display (
true, the default value) the links. However, it returns the string that it echoes, so customizing it is not very practical. That’s why other options allow us to personalize this display.
title_li option, is useful in only one case; when you set
false. In fact, WordPress uses this option to display the title above your links if they are not categorized. You can set it to
null so that it does not display any title.
$args = array( 'categorize' => false, 'title_li' => 'Here are ALL my links!' );
By default, the names of categories are displayed in an
h2 tag. You can change that by using the options
title_after, which respectively display a text before and after the categories names (or the fake category if you set
false). Don’t forget to close in
title_after the tags you open in
// Display the titles in a smaller heading $args = array( 'title_before' => '<h4>', 'title_after' => '</h4>' );
Each category (even the fake one) is in a list item. By default, this item uses the
linkcat CSS class, but you can personalize it with the
$args = array( 'class' => 'my-class' );
You can go further than just using the
class option. With
category_after, you can personalize the text that appears both before and after every category. By default, it defines a
li tag, which then contains all the links in the current category.
$args = array( 'category_before' => '<div id=%id class=%class>', 'category_after' => '</div>' );
As you can see, you can insert the
%class tags used by WordPress to display the corresponding values.
Finally, we find
before (default value:
after (default value:
'</li>'), which are similar to
category_after but are used for each bookmark. In the same way, we find
link_after, the equivalents of
$args = array( 'before' => '<li class="a-link">', 'after' => '</li>', 'link_before' => '<em>', 'link_after' => '</em>' );
Generating a Table
To see how to use and combine several options in a concrete example, we will now learn how to generate a table listing all our links with just one function:
For this example, I created nine links, sorted into three categories. There are three links in each category. The first link is rated 10, the second eight and the last seven. We will use
wp_list_bookmarks() to generate a table containing all these links. This table will contain a heading line and three more lines (one for each category). In each line, we will find the name of the category and the three links, sorted following their rating. See the image below to have an idea of the result.
You can reproduce this example without the need to have as many links as are provided below. In fact, you just need to have the same number of links in each category (and the same rating system in each category).
First, let’s create our table.
<table> <tr> <th>Category</th> <th>10</th> <th>8</th> <th>7</th> </tr> < ?php $args = array( ); wp_list_bookmarks($args); ?> </table>
Currently, this code won’t work: by default, `wp_list_bookmarks()` generates a list, and you should know that inserting a list into a table like this is not the right thing to do. So, let’s indicate the right options in our `$args` array.
First, we choose the categories to display. If you want to display all your categories, you can skip this options. Here, I chose to display three categories, sorted by their name.
$args = array( // Categories to display 'category' => '4,5,6', 'category_orderby' => 'name' );
Then, we sort our links. We chose in the heading line to first display the 10-rated link, so we ask
wp_list_bookmarks() to sort the links following their rating, and then we reverse the default ascending order.
$args = array( // Sort the links 'orderby' => 'rating', 'order' => 'DESC' );
Now, we need to indicate that we don’t want to create a list. We will here use the
category_after options to customize the code around each category. Before the category we open a
tr tag that we close right after.
$args = array( // One category = one line 'category_before' => '<tr>', 'category_after' => '</tr>' );
That’s better than the default output which displays a
li tag for each category. But it’s still not enough, as we want to display the categories’ names in a heading cell. To do that, we use the
title_after options to customize the code before and after each name.
$args = array( // Category's name in a heading cell 'title_before' => '<th>', 'title_after' => '</th>' );
Finally, by default, all the links are displayed in a
li tag: thanks to the
after options we changed to use table cells.
$args = array( // One link = one table cell 'before' => '<td>', 'after' => '</td>' );
And here we are! All you have to do now is combine the options we saw above to have the right result.
$args = array( // Categories to display 'category' => '4,5,6', 'category_orderby' => 'name', // Sort the links 'orderby' => 'rating', 'order' => 'DESC', // One category = one line 'category_before' => '<tr>', 'category_after' => '</tr>', // Category's name in a heading cell 'title_before' => '<th>', 'title_after' => '</th>', // One link = one table cell 'before' => '<td>', 'after' => '</td>' );
Now, it’s time to ask a question: is this example useful? In theory, yes. It is useful to see a concrete example of how to use the
wp_list_bookmarks() function to generate something other than a list. The available options allow us to create virtually anything we want.
But in practice, it is not really overly helpful.
wp_list_bookmarks() is not the perfect function to use to achieve what we did. In fact, what if the rating system is not exactly the same in each category? What if we want to display the rating and not only the link’s name?
There are a lot of things that are simply not possible with
wp_list_bookmarks(), and that’s why the other functions exist.
The WordPress Links Manager API is a very useful tool and, now, you can play with it the way you want to, thanks to the functions covered in this article.
In theory, you could do a lot of things with only the
wp_list_bookmarks() function, by playing with the available options. However, this is not the best solution when it comes to creating a sound and readable code. That’s why the other functions we will see in the next article in this series are very important.