Automatic Asset Optimization with Munee

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Munee is an asset management tool which can compile LESS, SCSS, or CoffeeScript, manipulate images, minify CSS and JS, and cache assets on the server and client on the fly. It works with PHP 5.3 and newer versions.

Stock photo, folder labeled "Assets"

In this tutorial, we will learn how Munee makes it easy to include assets in templates, how to install it, how it works and how to use it.

Munee is another way to avoid NodeJS in asset management of PHP apps.

Why would you want to use Munee?

Munee aims to make asset management easier. It performs a lot of tasks for us on the fly (i.e., when the asset is requested by the client) which we had to do manually before, thus saving time.

Here are some of the reasons why you may want to use Munee:

  1. We often make small changes to our CSS, LESS, SCSS, JavaScript and CoffeeScript files. Every time we make changes we need to compile and minify them. Munee does this for us on the fly.

  2. There are many shared web hosting servers which don’t have gzip enabled. If you are using Munee, it compresses files using PHP, ignoring this restriction.

  3. You don’t have to worry about adding caching directives to .htaccess files. Munee will take care of both server and client side caching of assets.

  4. Munee can manipulate images on the fly and is very handy for responsive web design. You don’t have to maintain different image files for different dimensions.

These are just some of the cases where you can find Munee very useful.

How does Munee work?

Once Munee is installed, it automatically starts caching assets on the server, sends proper client side caching headers, and starts sending gzip compressed responses, as well as compiled output for requested LESS, SCSS and CoffeeScript files.

To provide instructions to Munee for manipulating images or minifying CSS and JS files you need to add query string parameters to the path of the assets.

To be able to manipulate or minify assets Munee needs to intercept client requests for CSS, LESS, SCSS, JS, CoffeeScript and various image format files. To let munee intercept client requests for these assets we need to add an internal rewrite rule to .htaccess file (Nginx instructions also follow below).

Munee uses other third-party libraries such as imagine, leafo, meenie, tedivm, etc. to resize, manipulate, compile and minify assets.

Query string parameters meant to provide instructions to Munee are called filters.

How does Munee cache assets?

For implementing client side caching, it sets Cache-Control: must-revalidate headers while sending responses for the requested assets. It also reads caching headers in HTTP requests and sends a response or 304 Not Modified status depending on whether the client has the latest assets in its cache or not.

For implementing server side caching it stores the compiled, minified and manipulated assets in a separate directory.

It can detect changes to the original assets on runtime. When it detects a change in an original asset, it updates the server cache and also forces clients to use the latest files.

Installing Munee

Install with:

composer require meenie/munee

In the case of you trying to install Munee on a shared hosting server,composer require Munee on your local computer manually and upload the vendor directory to the hosting server.

Now we need to create a PHP file which is responsible for optimizing, manipulating, compiling and minifying assets using Munee.

For this, create a PHP file called munee.php:


require "vendor/autoload.php";

echo \Munee\Dispatcher::run(new \Munee\Request());

Now we need to redirect requests to assets such as CSS, LESS, SCSS, JS, CoffeeScript and various image format files to munee.php. We can do this using a server’s internal URL rewrite rules.

If you are using Apache, place this code in the .htaccess file of the directory in which the munee.php file is placed:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^(.*\.(?:css|less|scss|js|coffee|jpg|png|gif|jpeg))$ munee.php?files=/$1 [L,QSA,NC]

If you are using Nginx then you must modify the actual virtualhost settings for a URL rewrite rule as per this issue and this gist.

If .htaccess is disabled on your server or you don’t want to rewrite using .htaccess, then you can manually pass the file path into munee.php instead of an asset path in HTML:

<script src="munee.php?files=index.js"/>

For the rest of the tutorial, we’ll assume you are using .htaccess.

All the assets in the directory tree in which Munee is installed will be optimized.

Compiling SCSS, LESS and CoffeeScript

To compile SCSS/LESS and CoffeeScript to CSS and JavaScript respectively on the fly, you need to point to these files in HTML. Munee will handle the compilation automatically on the server side.

Here is some example code to demonstrate this:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="index.scss">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="index.less">

<script src=""/>

For the SCSS and LESS files, the response header Content-Type will be text/css, and the response body text will be compiled CSS.

Similarly, for Coffee files the response header Content-Type will be text/javascript, and the response body will be compiled JS.

Minifying CSS and JS Files

To minify CSS and JS files or compiled LESS, SCSS and CoffeeScript output we need to add minify=true to the path of the asset in HTML:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="index.scss?minify=true">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="index.less?minify=true">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="index.css?minify=true">

<script src="index.js?minify=true" />
<script src="" />

Manipulating Images

Munee lets us resize, crop and colorize images on the fly. Apart from this it also let’s us convert images to grayscale, convert images to negative and also use default images in place of missing ones.

Resizing, Stretching and Cropping Images

To resize images on the fly we need to use the resize filter. The value of the resize filter is a set of arguments.

Here is an example which shows how to change the height and width of an image to 100px if it’s above that:

<img src="myImage.jpg?resize=width[100]-height[100]">

We can also provide only the height or width argument if we want to resize keeping the aspect ratio.

To crop an image we need to provide an exact[true] argument along with height and width. Here is an example to demonstrate this:

<img src="myImage.jpg?resize=width[100]-height[100]-exact[true]">

Here the image will be cropped to exactly 100px height and width.

We can also add stretch=true to stretch or resize an image to 100px height and width. Here is an example to demonstrate this:

<img src="myImage.jpg?resize=width[100]-height[100]-stretch[true]">

These features of Munee are very useful for responsive and adaptive web design.

Placeholders for Missing Images

If an image is missing from the server, then we can use a placeholder image. For this functionality there is no filter. Rather, you have to add these instructions to the munee.php file:

require "vendor/autoload.php";

echo \Munee\Dispatcher::run(
    new \Munee\Request(array(
        "image" => array(
            "placeholders" => array(
                "/tourism/*" => "",
                "*" => WEBROOT . DS . "img" . DS . "my-placeholder-image.jpg"

Here inside the placeholders array, we can provide a URL or path for placeholders of images missing in different sub directories. In the above example for all missing images inside the tourism sub-directory we are using as a placeholder, whereas for every other missing image we are using my-placeholder-image.jpg.

Image Manipulation Security

Image manipulation takes a lot of memory and CPU time. Hackers can take down your server by requesting manipulated images again and again. Munee has built-in ways to tackle this issue:

  1. Referer should be the same domain where the image is located.
  2. It doesn’t keep more than 3 manipulated versions of an image in a time span of 5 minutes.

Combining Assets

Developers usually combine JavaScript and CSS files to reduce the total number of HTTP requests required to fetch all assets. Munee can combine HTML, CSS, JS, LESS, SCSS and CoffeeScript files.

To combine assets, we just need to provide the file paths comma separated in HTML.

Here is an example to demonstrate this:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="index.css,index.scss?minify=true">

<script src="index.js,"></script>

Here we are combining index.css and index.scss into one file. We have also passed minify=true to minify the output. Munee will compile index.scss to CSS before sending a response.

Similarly, we are combining index.js and into one file.

Munee API

The library also provides an API to applications to manually optimize, manipulate and minify assets. You will only need to learn this API if you are planning to build a library which uses Munee as dependency.

You can find out more about this API in the official documentation.


There are many other options for managing assets but if you want assets to be managed on the fly, Munee seems like the best choice. You can learn about other miscellaneous filters provided by Munee in their official documentation.

How do you manage your assets? Taking the NodeJS route or avoiding it? Did you try Munee? Let us know in the comments!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Automatic Asset Optimization with Munee

What is Munee and how does it work?

Munee is a standalone PHP 5.3 library designed to automate several web performance optimization tasks. It works by intercepting HTTP requests for static assets like CSS, JavaScript, and images, and then processes these assets based on the HTTP headers and query string parameters. Munee can handle tasks such as minification, caching, and compression, among others. It’s a powerful tool for developers looking to improve the performance of their websites or applications.

How does Munee compare to other asset optimization tools?

Unlike many other asset optimization tools, Munee is a standalone library that doesn’t require any additional software or plugins to work. It’s also highly flexible and customizable, allowing developers to tailor its functionality to their specific needs. Furthermore, Munee supports a wide range of file types and optimization techniques, making it a versatile choice for web performance optimization.

How can I install and use Munee in my project?

Munee can be easily installed using Composer, a dependency management tool for PHP. Once installed, you can use Munee by including it in your project and configuring it to intercept and process your static assets. Detailed instructions and examples can be found in the Munee documentation.

Can Munee handle image optimization?

Yes, Munee supports several image optimization techniques, including resizing, cropping, and compression. It can handle various image formats, including JPEG, PNG, and GIF. This makes it a useful tool for improving the load times of web pages with many images.

What are the benefits of using Munee for asset optimization?

Using Munee for asset optimization can significantly improve the performance of your website or application. By automating tasks like minification and compression, Munee can reduce the size of your static assets, leading to faster load times and a better user experience. Additionally, Munee’s caching functionality can further improve performance by storing optimized assets for future use.

Is Munee suitable for large-scale projects?

Absolutely. Munee is designed to handle projects of any size, from small personal websites to large-scale web applications. Its flexibility and wide range of supported file types and optimization techniques make it a suitable choice for any project.

How does Munee handle CSS and JavaScript optimization?

Munee can minify CSS and JavaScript files, removing unnecessary characters to reduce file size. It can also combine multiple files into one, reducing the number of HTTP requests and improving load times. Additionally, Munee can compile LESS and SCSS files into CSS, providing further optimization opportunities.

Can I customize how Munee optimizes my assets?

Yes, Munee is highly customizable. You can specify which optimization techniques to use, adjust the level of compression, and more. This allows you to tailor Munee’s functionality to your specific needs and preferences.

Does Munee support any other file types besides CSS, JavaScript, and images?

Yes, Munee also supports LESS and SCSS files, which it can compile into CSS for further optimization. Additionally, Munee can handle SVG files, providing optimization opportunities for vector graphics.

What are the system requirements for using Munee?

Munee requires PHP 5.3 or later to run. It also requires the GD library for image processing, and the LESSPHP and SCSSPHP libraries for LESS and SCSS compilation, respectively.

Narayan PrustyNarayan Prusty
View Author

Narayan is a web astronaut. He is the founder of QNimate. He loves teaching. He loves to share ideas. When not coding he enjoys playing football. You will often find him at QScutter classes.

apacheasset handlingasset managementasset managerassetsBrunoScachingcss minificationminificationminifynginxOOPHPoptimizationperformanceperformance-toolsPHPsass compilers
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