Django is a free, open-source, Python-based web framework. Django follows the MVC architectural pattern, with special emphasis on creating your applications rapidly. In recent times, Django has become a popular choice for creating web applications. Popular services like Instagram, Bitbucket and Pinterest were developed using Django.
In development mode, Django has a development server, which is sufficient for testing purposes. Once you complete a web application and it's ready for production, the process of setting up the application on a server might be overwhelming for some, especially if you're doing it for the first time. This article provides a step-by-step guide on how to deploy Django-based web applications using
WSGI, or Web Server Gateway Interface, is a Python standard for web servers. Python was traditionally developed as a programming language, so WSGI provides a way for web servers to serve applications developed in Python. It enables web applications in Python to interact with web servers, acting as a link between the two.
Apache is one of the most popular web servers, and
mod_wsgi is an Apache module that's used to host Python applications on Apache. It's also a relatively simple way of deploying a Django application.
Python comes installed by default in Ubuntu 14.04. Let us now look at the step by step guide to deploy a Django application using
1. Creating a Django Application
In this section, we're going to install the required packages and set up a hello world Django application to be served by
mod_wsgi. We'll assume that you've logged in to a newly created virtual machine.
1.1 Create a New User (Optional)
If you create a VM using AWS or Microsoft Azure, you're logged in as a user that you specified while creating the VM, so you can skip this step.
There are some extra steps if you're first logged in as a root user (if you create a new VM with Digital Ocean). Although you can perform all functions using the same user, it's generally advised to create a new user. Here are detailed instructions for creating users and adding them to the sudoers list on Ubuntu 14.04.
1.2 Install a Python Package Manager
In this tutorial, we're going to use the Ubuntu package manager,
apt-get, for installing packages. However, on a fresh VM, you must update packages first by running the following command:
sudo apt-get update
Pip is a Python package manager that helps us install, modify or remove Python packages. The easiest way to install
pip in Ubuntu is by using the Ubuntu package manager
sudo apt-get install python-pip
apt-get installs the latest stable version of
pip. Alternatively, if you require a specific version of
pip, you can install it from the source code. However, for the purposes of deploying a Django application, installing it through the package manager should suffice.
You can also use
easy_install as an alternative to
pip. However, in this tutorial, we'll use
pip to install packages.
1.3 Install Django
If you're creating a project form scratch, you just need the Django package. In this example, we wouldn't require any further packages:
sudo pip install Django
If you want to install a specific version of the package, you can specify it in the command as shown below (in case your application was coded in an older version of Django):
sudo pip install Django==1.5.5
You can also install Django through the package manager
apt-get. Caution must be exercised when following this step as
apt-get might not be updated with the latest stable version as compared to
1.4 Install and Freeze Other Requirements (Optional)
If you're deploying an existing project, you can recursively run
pip to install the dependencies in the project. Generally, there's a file
requirements.txt in the source directory of the project, which contains the packages required to run the project:
pip install -r requirements.txt
If your system has other Python projects, the versions of different Python packages might interfere with one another. A solution to this is to use
virtualenv and keep every project in its own virtual Python environment. Here's a tutorial on getting started with
virtualenv. Since we're deploying an application on a server, we aren't going to work with
virtualenv in this tutorial.
If you're working on a Django application and you want to create or update the requirements file, you could just run the following:
pip freeze > requirements.txt
pip freeze prints a list of installed Python packages in your current environment, and the
> stores the output of the command
pip freeze into the file
Hello World Application
To create a new project in Django named
helloworld, run the following:
django-admin.py startproject helloworld
You'll notice that a new directory
helloworld has been created. Change your directory to
helloworld and run the following to start a new app
helloapp within the Django project:
cd helloworld/ django-admin.py startapp helloapp
We can now create a sample view that prints
Hello World in our browser. First, add the new app to your project's
settings.py. Search for
in the file, and add the name of our new app to it. It should look something like the following:
INSTALLED_APPS = ( 'django.contrib.auth', 'django.contrib.contenttypes', 'django.contrib.sessions', 'django.contrib.sites', 'django.contrib.messages', 'django.contrib.staticfiles', 'helloapp' )
Next, we add a URL pattern to the
urls.py of the project. It looks something like this:
urlpatterns = patterns('', # Examples: # url(r'^$', 'helloworld.views.home', name='home'), url(r'^', 'helloapp.views.home_view'), )
This instructs Django to look for the function
home_view within the
views.py of the app
helloapp. Therefore, we edit the
views.py file to look like the following:
from django.http import HttpResponse def home_view(request): return HttpResponse('Hello World')
Next, we run the development server by running the following:
python manage.py runserver
The code for the hello world Django application is available on GitHub.
2. Serving a Django Application Through Apache and
Now that we've created a hello world application, this section explores how you can configure different settings in order to serve the application through Apache and mod_wsgi.
2.1 Install Apache2
apt-get command, installing Apache is also a one step process. Run the following command:
sudo apt-get install apache2
2.2 Install mod_wsgi
mod_wsgi module for Apache can be installed on Ubuntu 14.04 using
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-wsgi
If you're using Python 3 instead of Python 2, run the following:
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-wsgi-py3
Here's a tutorial with detailed instructions on installing
mod_wsgi on Ubuntu.
2.3 Modifying Directory Structure
To serve the Django application through
mod_wsgi, we need to write a WSGI script that serves as a connection between Apache and Django. The Django file structure by default is something like this:
mysite/ manage.py mysite/ __init__.py settings.py urls.py myapp/ models.py views.py
We're going to change it a bit and add an
apache directory within
mysite to contain three files:
mysite/ manage.py mysite/ __init__.py settings.py urls.py apache/ __init__.py override.py wsgi.py myapp/ models.py views.py
This helps separate the logic, and you could also ignore the directory as a whole in your version control system.
Note: if you're using a version control software (VCS) like Git, you can add the
apache directory to the ignore list of the VCS.
2.4 Create WSGI Script
__init__.py file tells Python to treat the directory as a package. The
override.py imports all settings and overrides any settings for production. For instance, databases and debug settings for production might be different from those of development, and you may want to separate them from the source code:
# override.py from mysite.settings import * DEBUG = True ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['www.mydomain.com', 'mydomain.com']
wsgi.py file contains the WSGI settings. We're assuming that the root directory shown above is contained in the home directory of the user (
#wsgi.py import os, sys # Calculate the path based on the location of the WSGI script. apache_configuration= os.path.dirname(__file__) project = os.path.dirname(apache_configuration) workspace = os.path.dirname(project) sys.path.append(workspace) sys.path.append(project) # Add the path to 3rd party django application and to django itself. sys.path.append('/home/myuser') os.environ['DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE'] = 'mysite.apache.override' import django.core.handlers.wsgi application = django.core.handlers.wsgi.WSGIHandler()
You also need to transfer the ownership of the
apache directory to Apache's default user
www-data in order to allow it to access the directory:
sudo chown www-data:www-data apache/
Note: Thanks to Scott Taggart in the comments for pointing out that
wsgi.py script shown above will throw an error in Django 1.8 (Django 1.7 was used for this article). As noted by Scott, for the script to work with Django 1.8, the last two lines need to be replaced with:
from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application application = get_wsgi_application()
2.5 Configure Apache Settings
To configure Apache to use your WSGI script, you need to edit the configuration file as shown below (using a text editor, in this case VIM):
sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf
Add the following lines to the file:
<VirtualHost *:80> WSGIScriptAlias /mypath/ /home/myuser/mysite/apache/wsgi.py <Directory "/home/myuser/mysite/apache/"> Require all granted </Directory> </VirtualHost>
The first line adds an alias of
/mypath to the root of your web application. Your web application would now run on your domain—
/mypath/ above with
/ if you want your domain,
http://www.mydomain.com/ , to directly point to the Django application. The
<Directory> block is to allow requests to the directory that contains the WSGI script.
If you have a custom
robots.txt and favicon, you may add an alias as follows:
Alias /robots.txt /home/myuser/mysite/robots.txt Alias /favicon.ico /home/myuser/mysite/favicon.ico
In each of the lines above, the first argument after the keyword
Alias signifies the URL pattern, and the second argument shows the path to the file to be served. This example assumes that your files
favicon.ico are saved in the
To serve static and media files, you need to create their alias entries separately:
Alias /media/ /home/myuser/mysite/media/ Alias /static/ /home/myuser/mysite/static/ <Directory /path/to/mysite.com/static> Require all granted </Directory> <Directory /path/to/mysite.com/media> Require all granted </Directory>
Finally, save and close the file and restart Apache to see the changes:
sudo service apache2 restart
Note for older versions of Apache
For Apache versions older than 2.4 (like the one in Ubuntu 12.04), you need to replace
Require all granted by
Allow from all after adding the line
Order deny,allow above it.
Note for static files being served by Django packages
Some Django packages have their own static and media files. In the development version, it's taken care of by Django, but it doesn't work that way when serving through Apache (including the Django admin static files). The static files are usually located in the same place where packages are installed.
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An easy way to override them is to copy their static files to your static directory (and commit them), which is a rather messy solution. A better way would be to create an alias for the particular set of static files, just like you created alias entries for static and media roots.
A discussion on StackOverflow gives an example of how to take care of the Django admin static and media files. You need to follow the same pattern for every other package that uses static and media files.
In recent years, Django has become the first choice among many programmers. Although many accuse Python of being slow, websites like Instagram and Disqus—which run on Django—have scaled to millions of users. If you're interested, you may want to read how HackerEarth scaled their Django-based web application using mod_wsgi.
I hope this tutorial has helped you in deploying your Django-based web application on the server using Apache and
mod_wsgi. If you faced any difficulties, let me know in the comments below.