Most Python newcomers don’t know how to set up a development environment that follows the latest standards used by professional programmers, so this tutorial will teach you how to properly create a fully working Python development environment using industry accepted best practices.
There are so many libraries I use for my own personal projects, three web application development frameworks I use and many others I would love to explore in the near future. It is very clear that a serious project in Python depends on other packages written by other developers. If you are a Django developer, I am very sure you make use of South for performing automatic database migrations, Django Debug Toolbar for gathering various debug information about the current request/response, Celery for taking care of real-time operations and scheduling as well, and so on.
I, for example, use the package
requests a lot for my projects, and a Django web application I am currently working on depends on version 2.3.0. According to the official documentation, the latest version of this package is version 2.5.1. Say I go ahead and install the latest version of the library on my Ubuntu machine because I need it for another project, and everything seems to work fine until I try to make use of my older project which worked fine with 2.3.0. Suddenly, everything is broken. What happened? Maybe the API of the latest version of requests has changed since version 2.3.0? The reason does not matter at this point, as my older project is broken and no longer works.
A conflict between two projects has been created. They make use of the same library, but they require different versions of it.
The tool virtualenv is the solution to this problem.
Virtualenv helps solve project dependency conflicts by creating isolated environments which can contain all the goodies Python programmers need to develop their projects. A virtual environment created using this tool includes a fresh copy of the Python binary itself as well as a copy of the entire Python standard library.
To create a virtual environment for your Python project, you type the command
virtualenv followed by the name you want to give to the virtual environment like shown below.
It is very important to know that each time you want to use a created virtual environment, you need to activate it. The following command does this:
Everything installed in the
virt1 directory will not affect the global packages or the system wide installations, thus avoiding dependency conflicts.
If I now install the newest version of requests, the old one does not get uninstalled. The new one is installed in the virtual environment exclusively.
pip -I install requests
The above command produces the following output:
Downloading/unpacking requests Downloading requests-2.5.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (464kB): 464kB downloaded Installing collected packages: requests Successfully installed requests Cleaning up...
A word on the
pip command above – it’s a package manager that is very useful when you want to distribute your project to others, as it allows the developer to install all the required packages with a
For example, a fellow developer can activate a virtual environment and then run the following command to install the dependencies of the project:
pip install -r requirements.txt
To generate the dependencies file of your project, you run the following command.
pip freeze > requirements.txt
The pip tool can also be used to uninstall a package from your machine:
pip uninstall some-package-name
One can install pip system-wide with the default Python package manager:
sudo easy_install pip
And then use pip to install
sudo pip install virtualenv
After the environment is created
Once the virtual environment gets activated, your terminal prompt changes to show the user in which directory they are working:
The following command will let you deactivate the virtual environment:
You can use the
which command to check the Python binary that is used in the current virtual environment.
If everything is working well, you should get something similar to the following output.
which again, you should get a different output.
This is because when working inside a virtual environment, the binary copy placed inside that environment is being used. The same applies to packages.
We can use the option
-p while working with virtualenv in order to use a specific version of Python which is globally installed on the machine.
For example, the following command can be used to create the virtual environment
virt2 with Python3 in it, if you have Python3 installed on your machine.
virtualenv -p /usr/bin/python3 virt2
And to delete a virtual environment you use the
rm -r command like you do with any other directory you want to delete.
rm -r virt2
Virtualenvwrapper provides very useful commands that make working with virtual environments even easier. For example, the
workon command can be used to activate and work on a virtual environment:
It, too, is installed easily with pip.
pip install virtualenvwrapper
I like to keep all my virtual environments in a single place. To accomplish this, run the following command to create a new directory for your virtual environments.
~/.virtualenvs like shown below.
Once this is done, we can open the
.bashrc file inside the home directory using a text editor and add the following line to the end of it.
Then, we reload the
.bashrc file with the following command.
mkvirtualenv command can be used to easily make new environments placed by default inside this folder.
We can easily activate the virtual environment with the help of the
The command to deactivate the virtual environment is the same as the one we used before.
It’s very easy to switch between different virtual environments. For example, to
workon another virtual environment:
To delete a virtual environment, the command
rmvirtualenv should be used.
Another very useful tip is the one that helps automatically activate the virtual environments when the one cd’s into their project.
For this, a
.env file should be placed inside the project directory.
cd sitepointproject vim .env
.env file, we insert the following line.
The autoenv tool will help us automagically activate the environment when navigating into a directory containing a
.env file. To install it, we clone it.
git clone git://github.com/kennethreitz/autoenv.git ~/.autoenv
Then we use
echo to place another line inside the
.bashrc file. You can also use a text editor to do it.
echo 'source ~/.autoenv/activate.sh' >> ~/.bashrc
Now, every time you
cd into your project, the virtual environment will get activated automatically.
In this tutorial, we learned some interesting hacks for efficiency when working with Python virtual environments. The tools are out there – embrace them and improve your workflow. Do you use any other interesting approaches in your Python development workflow? Let us know!
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