Greetings, readers! This week I’m exploring web fonts, looking at the best way to use custom fonts on your site across browsers.
I’m going to start with some basic explanations so we all know what we’re talking about, then I’ll move on to some more advanced aspects in the following article.
Using custom fonts on the Web (outside of the usual web-safe font set) was a complete pain for many years, with web designers having to resort to using weird text replacement techniques like image replacement or siFR, which proved to be hackish and inflexible.
But, no more! Since the CSS Fonts Module Level 3 gained widespread support across browsers, things have been much improved. Hell, web fonts even work as far back as IE5.5.
Let’s explore web fonts some more.
Basic web fonts syntax
At its core, the web fonts system relies on two things.
1. The @font-face rule
First you insert a block in your CSS, describing a web font you want to embed into your page. This information is all wrapped inside a
@font-face block, like so:
This should go at the top of your CSS: you want to make sure the font has been made available before you try to apply it to any text.
First, we include a font-family name, to identify the font in our CSS. This can be just about any name you like, as long you use it consistently (if the name has spaces in it, you need to include quotes around the name):
Note: Abril Fatface font can be found on Font Squirrel, a great source of free web fonts.
Next, you need to include the location of the font file you want to include on your page:
font-family: 'Abril Fatface Regular';
Note that you can include a series of locations in this line, separated by commas:
src: local('Abril Fatface Regular'), url("AbrilFatface-Regular.otf"), url("AbrilFatface-Regular.eot");
The browser goes through the choices in order, and finds the first one that works for it. In this case, we are asking the browser to first check whether the font is installed locally and use the local version if available (useful for potentially saving some bandwidth.)
Next, we include a reference to an Open Type format font, then lastly we include an Embedded Open Type version for old versions of IE to use (this is all they understand.)
Be aware that you can’t point to a font on a different domain, unless you use CORS (see an Apache-specific solution on David Walsh’s site)
That’s it for the essentials; our font should now be usable on our web page.
2. Standard font-family declaration
Now we’ve embedded the font into your page, applying it to some text is as simple as using the
font-family declaration, just like we would normally:
font-family: 'Abril Fatface Regular', sans-serif;
See my first example for the above code in action.
Other @font-face options
There are a number of other options you can include in your
font-family: 'Abril Fatface';
font-* descriptors are for use when many different variants of a font are available in a single file. Here for example we are specifying that we’d like to use the bold, italic, condensed variant of the font, if it is available, rather than the browser downloading the whole lot.
unicode-range descriptor specifies what glyphs from inside the font-file you want to use.
U+0026 is the unicode for the ampersand (&), meaning that in this case only the ampersand would be downloaded from this font file for use on the page. This is a good technique for saving bandwidth when you only want to use a very specific character set in that font.
For more details, read http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-fonts/#font-prop-desc and http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-fonts/#unicode-range-desc
The cross browser reality
The reality of getting web fonts to work across browsers is a little different. Different browsers support a slightly different set of font formats, so you need to provide a set of alternatives.
- Web Open Font Format (.woff): For all modern browsers
- Embedded Open Type: For older versions of Internet Explorer (IE< =8)
- SVG fonts: For older versions of iOS Safari (3.2-4.1)
- Truetype fonts: For older versions of the default android browser
@font-face rule in my second, cross browser example looks like this:
src: url('abrilfatface-regular-webfont.eot?#iefix') format('embedded-opentype'),
This is pretty ugly, but fortunately you don’t need to generate it yourself: online resources like Font Squirrel have easy-to-use generators that take a font file, and generate all the alternative format files and CSS you need.
In the next part, we’ll get a little more advanced.
Note: If you really want to know why all this works, read Paul Irish’s Bulletproof @font-face syntax.