HTML & CSS
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By Estelle Weyl

HTML5 Forms: Dependable Tools in Our Toolbox

By Estelle Weyl
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The following is an extract from our book, HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World, 2nd Edition, written by Alexis Goldstein, Louis Lazaris, and Estelle Weyl. Copies are sold in stores worldwide, or you can buy it in ebook form here.

We’ve coded most of the page, and you now know almost all of what there is to know about new HTML5 elements and their semantics. But before we start work on the look of the site—which we do in Chapter 7—we’ll take a quick detour away from The HTML5 Herald’s front page to look at the sign-up page. This will illustrate what HTML5 has to offer in terms of web forms.

HTML5 web forms have introduced new form elements, input types, attributes, native validation, and other form features. Many of these features we’ve been using in our interfaces for years: form validation, combo boxes, placeholder text, and the like. The difference is that before we had to resort to JavaScript to create these behaviors; now they’re available directly in the browser. All you need to do is include attributes in your markup to make them available.

HTML5 not only makes marking up forms easier on the developer, it’s also better for the user. With client-side validation being handled natively by the browser, there will be greater consistency across different sites, and many pages will load faster without all that redundant JavaScript.

Let’s dive in!

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Dependable Tools in Our Toolbox

Forms are often the last thing developers include in their pages—many developers find forms just plain boring. The good news is HTML5 injects a little bit more joy into coding forms. By the end of this chapter, we hope you’ll look forward to employing form elements as appropriate in your markup.

Let’s start off our sign-up form with plain old-fashioned HTML:

<form id="register" method="post">
  <header>
    <h1>Sign Me Up!</h1>
    <p>I would like to receive your fine publication.</p>
  </header>

  <ul>
    <li>
      <label for="register-name">My name is:</label>
      <input type="text" id="register-name" name="name">
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="address">My email address is:</label>
      <input type="text" id="address" name="address">
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="url">My website is located at:</label>
      <input type="text" id="url" name="url">
    </li>
    <li> 
      <label for="password">I would like my password to be:</label>
      <p>(at least 6 characters, no spaces)</p>
      <input type="password" id="password" name="password">
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="rating">On a scale of 1 to 10, my knowledge of HTML5 is:</label>
      <input type="text" name="rating" id="rating">
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="startdate">Please start my subscription on:</label>
      <input type="text" id="startdate" name="startdate">
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="quantity">I would like to receive <input type="text" name="quantity" id="quantity"> copies of <cite> The HTML5 Herald</cite>.</label>
    </li>
    <li>
      <label for="upsell">Also sign me up for <cite>The CSS3 Chronicle</cite></label>
      <input type="checkbox" id="upsell" name="upsell" value="CSS Chronicle">
    </li>
    <li>
      <input type="submit" id="register-submit" value="Send Post Haste">
    </li>
  </ul>
</form>

This sample registration form uses form elements that have been available since the earliest versions of HTML. This form provides clues to users about what type of data is expected in each field via the label and p elements, so even your users on Netscape 4.7 and IE5 (kidding!) can understand the form. It works, but it can certainly be improved upon.

In this chapter we’re going to enhance this form to include HTML5 form features. HTML5 provides new input types specific to email addresses, URLs, numbers, dates, and more. In addition to these, HTML5 introduces attributes that can be used with both new and existing input types. These allow you to provide placeholder text, mark fields as required, and declare what type of data is acceptable—all without JavaScript.

We’ll cover all the newly added input types later in the chapter. Before we do that, let’s look at the new form attributes HTML5 provides.

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