In my last article, Obvious always wins I showed how important it is that users are able to understand your website or application and can use it without any effort. The first thing to be sure of is that your interface is simple and intuitive, utilizing familiar icons, actions, and features.
One of the greatest challenges for developers is to find and implement a functional navigation menu that works well on mobile devices.
You cannot create a good user experience without a functional navigation bar. New users will look for and scan your navigation so it is crucial to give a good impression and avoid disappointing their expectations.
Among the professionals who have written on this topic, the first that deserves a mention is Brad Frost. You can discover his approaches and examples of patterns for mobile navigational menus on Brad’s website.
In this article I’ll focus on 5 of them. Think carefully about the best to use in your next projects based on your users’ needs.
Top Nav or “Do Nothing” Approach
One of the most frequently used solutions for navigation is to keep it at the top. Because of its ease of implementation, it’s the one adopted by the majority of websites.
Left Logic, for example, uses this approach.
Unfortunately, this method has some disadvantages. Firstly, height issues. This will become an even bigger problem on smaller screens since your screen real estate becomes scarcer.
Generally, websites adapt to the width of a mobile device, but not for the height, and we all know how important height is on mobiles. Imagine you are visiting a website on your smartphone and the height of the company logo and the first two items of the menu fills all your screen. You have to repeatedly scroll until you finally see the content you’re looking for.
We all know that the sooner people find what they are looking for, the better. It is what everyone involved with a website wants, especially its users. This means letting users focus on the core information on a page, avoiding the possibility of confusion with other page elements.
Secondly, the “Do Nothing” approach is not scalable and you could face several issues if you want to add new links. You need to be careful to not place links too close together, since this choice can result in unwanted clicks.
Finally, you could encounter cross-device issues. Devices have different methods of rendering fonts and websites can look great on an iPhone but not so great on other platforms.
The ‘Select menu’ is a simple and common menu approach. Select menus are accessible in every browser, easy to implement, and familiar to everyone. Their simplicity is their main drawback. Select menus are generic looking, and might not fit with the feel of your site.
This method frees up plenty of space and keeps interactions in the header where users are accustomed to finding web navigation.
They are easily recognizable through a clear label such as “navigation” or “menu” and pull up native controls, with each mobile browser handling select menus their own way.
With select menus you lack design and styling control. Each browser handles them in their own, usually clunky, manner.
They are potentially confusing, especially when handling nested lists, that can look strange. Child elements are typically handled by indenting with dashes, and while this method might get the point across, and Brad Frost also sees it as confusing and ugly.
With the toggle approach, a menu slides open in the header. It’s a good-looking approach, scalable and user-friendly. This pattern is not difficult to implement and allows you to keep your whole menu and for users to easily navigate with it.
For its mobile version, the University on Notre Dame has chosen this approach.
The user is presented with an accordion type navigation. The toggle menu appears in place and keeps the users there, without the risk of disorienting them.
It’s simple, elegant, composed of a smooth animated flyout or basic show/hide and is easy to scale. Through the use of CSS, you only have to hide the mobile trigger and show the menu when the appropriate breakpoint is reached. That’s all.
Footer navigation is appealing for the same reasons as top navigation. It’s easy to implement and makes sense for simpler sites. This pattern is pretty self explanatory, navigation is placed in the footer.
It can be applied in two possible methods. The first is including an anchor in the header pointing to the main navigation at the bottom of the page. The second skips the anchor and assumes you’ll figure it out. The second method is more direct and cuts down on endless scrolling.
Smashing Magazine employs the Footer-Anchor approach.
Some websites get away with just having links in the footer with no menu at the top. Others have implemented a direct jump from a menu button to the footer. The jump to the footer can be a little disorienting and can make the experience worse.
Quickly jumping to the footer of the site can be disorientating and unelegant.
This approach is like the footer anchor approach but without the anchor in the header. It follows the content-first, navigation-second model, however it requires mobile users to scroll all the way to the bottom in order to navigate the site.
It frees up header space.
Users find it difficult to discover and access, especially on mobile devices.
There are not so many examples of this approach. To give you an idea, here are the links of the websites discovered by Brad Frost himself:
In this article we’ve looked at 5 common approaches for creating a simple, good-looking and functional menu. Try combining these styles and approaches to create interesting navigational methods and let me know what you discover.
I have a Bachelor's degree in European languages, cultures, and literature from the University of Naples. I'm passionate about graphics and web design, and for several years I've been working on projects and designs for many companies. I'm a writer for the Audero User Group; my specialties are HTML, CSS, Web Design, and Adobe Photoshop.