# Opal: Ruby in the Browser and the Game of Life

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Welcome to the the second part of the article where we look at Opal, a Ruby to Javascript compiler! In the previous installment, I introduced Opal and showed how to get it set up on your system. We created the first half of Conway’s Game of Life in Opal. In particular, implementing the grid using the HTML 5 canvas element, and adding some interactivity to it. In this article, we will complete our application by implementing the rest of the logic, and hooking it to the canvas. The completed source can be found at the end of the article. Let’s dive right in!

## Game Rules

As you might recall, Conway’s Game of Life consists of 4 simple rules:

#### Rule 1

Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbors dies, as if caused by under-population.

#### Rule 2

Any live cell with two or three live neighbors lives on to the next generation.

#### Rule 3

Any live cell with more than three live neighbors dies, as if by overcrowding.

#### Rule 4

Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbors becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.

## Protip: Using `pp` as `console`.log

Along the way, you might use lots of `console.log` statements for debugging. Indeed, that was what I used to do. Then, I learned an awesome trick:

## Implementing the Game Logic

### Step 1: Create `conway.rb`

In the `app` directory, go ahead and create `conway.rb`:
``````require 'opal'
require 'opal-jquery'
require 'grid'

class Conway
attr_reader :grid

def initialize(grid)
@grid = grid
end
end``````
We pass in an instance of `Grid` to the `Conway` initializer.

### Step 2: Discovering Liveness and Population Count

Before the 4 rules can be implemented, we need to find out whether a cell at a particular coordinate is alive or dead:
``````def is_alive?(x, y)
state[[x, y]] == 1
end

def is_dead?(x, y)
!is_alive?(x, y)
end``````
Also how many neighbors for a given coordinate:
``````def population_at(x, y)
[
state[[x-1, y-1]],
state[[x-1, y ]],
state[[x-1, y+1]],
state[[x, y-1]],
state[[x, y+1]],
state[[x+1, y-1]],
state[[x+1, y ]],
state[[x+1, y+1]]
].map(&:to_i).reduce(:+)
end``````
Notice how we can happily make use of Ruby methods like `map` and `reduce`, and even `Symbol#to_proc` works! It almost makes you forget that you are also working with Javascript.

### Step 3: Implementing the Rules

Now that we can check for the liveness and population count at a coordinate, implementing the 4 rules is simple:
``````# Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies,
# as if caused by under-population.
def is_underpopulated?(state, x, y)
is_alive?(x, y) && population_at(x, y) < 2
end

# Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives
# on to the next generation.
def is_living_happily?(x, y)
is_alive?(x, y) && ([2, 3].include? population_at(x, y))
end

# Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies,
# as if by overcrowding.
def is_overpopulated?(x, y)
is_alive?(x, y) && population_at(x, y) > 3
end

# Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell,
# as if by reproduction.
def can_reproduce?(x, y)
is_dead?(x, y) && population_at(x, y) == 3
end``````
Next, check if a cell makes it at the next interval, or tick, in Game of Life parlance:
``````def get_state_at(x, y)
if is_underpopulated?(x, y)
0
elsif is_living_happily?(x, y)
1
elsif is_overpopulated?(x, y)
0
elsif can_reproduce?(x, y)
1
end
end``````

### Step 4: Accessing the Grid State

Recall how `Grid` was implemented:
``````class Grid
attr_reader :height, :width, :canvas, :context, :max_x, :max_y
attr_accessor :state

CELL_HEIGHT = 15;
CELL_WIDTH = 15;

def initialize
@height = `\$(window).height()`
@width = `\$(window).width()`
@canvas = `document.getElementById(#{canvas_id})`
@context = `#{canvas}.getContext('2d')`
@max_x = (height / CELL_HEIGHT).floor
@max_y = (width / CELL_WIDTH).floor
@state = blank_state
draw_canvas
end

def blank_state
h = Hash.new
(0..max_x).each do |x|
(0..max_y).each do |y|
h[[x,y]] = 0
end
end
h
end
# ...
end``````
Note that the state of the grid is stored in the `@state` attribute. In order to access the grid state, a `Conway` object needs to do something like `grid.state`. Turns out, there’s a more idiomatic way to do this in Ruby. Enter the `Forwardable` module. What does this do exactly?
The Forwardable module provides delegation of specified methods to a designated object, using the methods `def_delegator` and `def_delegators`.
In the code:
``````require 'opal'
require 'opal-jquery'
require 'grid'
require 'forwardable'

class Conway
attr_reader :grid
extend Forwardable

def_delegators :@grid, :state, :state=

def initialize(grid)
@grid = grid
end
# ...
end``````
First, `require` and `extend` Forwardable. Then, declare which object (`@grid`) and which methods we want delegated. This means that both of these are now the same thing:
``````Conway.new(Grid.new).grid.state

Conway.new(Grid.new).state``````

### Step 5: Computing the Next State

At each `tick`, the next state for each cell needs to be computed. In other words, find out whether that cell is alive or dead. The computed new state is then saved into `grid`. The entire canvas is redrawn with these new coordinates.
``````def tick
# def_delegators at work again!
# This call is delegate to grid.state=
self.state = new_state
redraw_canvas
end

def new_state
new_state = Hash.new
state.each do |cell, _|
new_state[cell] = get_state_at(cell[0], cell[1])
end
new_state
end``````

#### Redrawing the Canvas

We have yet to implement `redraw_canvas`. Let’s rectify that. Open up `grid.rb` and add this:
``````class Grid
# ...
def redraw_canvas
draw_canvas
state.each do |cell, liveness|
fill_cell(cell[0], cell[1]) if liveness == 1
end
end
# ...
end``````
`redraw_canvas` redraws a blank canvas and iterates through `state`. If the coordinate value is 1 (alive), it fills it, otherwise it is left unfilled. Head back to `conway.rb` and make an addition to the `def_delegators`:
``def_delegators :@grid, :state, :state=, :redraw_canvas``

### Step 6. Looping

There is no way to transition into the next tick. In Opal, you cannot write an infinite loop in the traditional Ruby way. So, doing something like this does not work:
``````loop do
tick
end``````
Neither will this:
``````while true do
tick
end``````
Let’s think for a bit. What we really want is to run `tick` at certain, fixed intervals. Javascript has `setInterval`! How can we use this in our code? Create yet another file called `interval.rb` in `app`.
``````class Interval
# Note that time is in ms.
def initialize(time=0, &block)
@interval = `setInterval(function(){#{block.call}}, time)`
end

def stop
`clearInterval(#@interval)`
end
end``````
I hope your mind is blown after you realize what is going on here. The `Interval` initializer takes in a `time` (no surprise), and a block! Then it `call`s the block in the Javascript `setInterval` function! This means that we can now implement our infinite loop. Remember to `require interval` and then pass in a block containing the `tick` method like so:
``````require 'interval'
#...

class Conway
# ...
def run
Interval.new do
tick
end
end
# ...
end``````
`run` kickstarts the loop which drives the entire animation. But before we get to that, we have a bit more work left to do.

### Step 7: Seeding

We have yet to tackle the issue of the initial state of the board, also known as the `seed`. `seed` should contain the coordinates of all the clicked positions of the board. When the grid is first loaded, it is blank. The user gets to click the cells to fill them up. This makes up the `seed`. The `seed` coordinates are recorded. When the user is done, he/she presses the Enter key, triggering `Conway#run`. The user now gets to enjoy a lovely animation. Open up `grid.rb`, and add the `seed` attribute. For convenience, we call `add_mouse_event_listener`
when `Grid` is initialized.
``````class Grid
attr_accessor :state, :seed

def initialize
# ...
@seed = []
# ...
add_mouse_event_listener
end
# ...
end``````
When a click occurs, add the coordinates into `seed`. Similarly, for double-click, remove the coordinates from `seed`.
``````def add_mouse_event_listener
Element.find("##{canvas_id}").on :click do |event|
# ...
seed << [x, y]
end

Element.find("##{canvas_id}").on :dblclick do |event|
# ...
seed.delete([x, y])
end
end``````
Turn your attention now to `conway.rb`. First, add `seed` to `def_delegators`:
``def_delegators :@grid, :state, :state=, :redraw_canvas, :seed``
We need to detect when the ‘Enter’ key is pressed.
``````def add_enter_event_listener
Document.on :keypress do |event|
if enter_pressed?(event)
seed.each do |x, y|
state[[x, y]] = 1
end

run
end
end
end``````
When ‘Enter’ is detected, this method iterates through the coordinates of `seed` and populate the `grid`‘s initial `state`. After that, the game is run. How do we detect if an ‘Enter’ is pressed? Just like in JavaScript/jQuery, check `event.which` for the ‘Enter’ key code:
``````def enter_pressed?(event)
event.which == 13
end``````
Again for convenience, we run `add_enter_event_listener` when `Conway` is initialized:
``````class Conway
# ...
def initialize(grid)
@grid = grid
add_enter_event_listener
end
# ...
end``````

### Step 8: Bonus! The Glider Gun Pattern

Drop this code into `grid.rb`:
``````class Grid

def initialize
# ...
add_demo_event_listener
end

# Ctrl+D displays a demo of the Glider Gun:
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Game_of_life_glider_gun.svg
def add_demo_event_listener
Document.on :keypress do |event|
if ctrl_d_pressed?(event)
[
[25, 1],
[23, 2], [25, 2],
[13, 3], [14, 3], [21, 3], [22, 3],
[12, 4], [16, 4], [21, 4], [22, 4], [35, 4], [36, 4],
[1, 5], [2, 5], [11, 5], [17, 5], [21, 5], [22, 5], [35, 5], [36, 5],
[1, 6], [2, 6], [11, 6], [15, 6], [17, 6], [18, 6], [23, 6], [25, 6],
[11, 7], [17, 7], [25, 7],
[12, 8], [16, 8],
[13, 9], [14, 9]
].each do |x, y|
fill_cell(x, y)
seed << [x, y]
end
end
end
end

def ctrl_d_pressed?(event)
event.ctrl_key == true && event.which == 4
end
# ...
end``````
Here, when you type `Ctrl` + `D` together, the Glider Gun pattern would be drawn. Press ‘Enter’ to start the animation.

### Step 9: All Done!

Give yourself a big pat on the back. We have reached the end. Go ahead and try out a couple of patterns. If you need any inspiration for starting patterns, a quick search will yield many interesting results.

## Concluding Remarks

I hope you had a bit of fun experimenting with Opal and, along the way, maybe even found ways to integrate Opal into your existing project. Rails developers will be pleased to know that Opal plays nice with the asset pipeline with the `opal-rails` gem. In my short experience playing with Opal, I didn’t find debugging that big of an issue. Usually, inspecting the error log in the browser was sufficient in figuring out what went wrong. This is especially true since during compilation, the Javascript function has the same name as the Ruby method. Most of the times the error messages were descriptive enough. You will notice that this implementation is not exactly performant, and depends on the size of the canvas. I chose to go for the most straightforward implementation, therefore, some performance had to be sacrificed. Nonetheless, I hope you had lot of fun building this application! Another thing to note is that there are a few libraries already written for Opal, such as opal-browser, opal-rails and opal-rspec. You can see even more on the Opal github page. We could make our application shorter with opal-browser, for example, but I wanted to demonstrate what could be achieved with the bare minimum. Opal is very promising, and I hope it gains more widespread adoption. It will be very interesting to see what other developers do with this. Thanks for reading!

## Resources

• Opal, A new hope (for Ruby programmers) (Ruby Conf 2013) – video
• Opal mailing list is pretty active, and a good place to ask questions if you get stuck.

## The Complete Source

For your convenience, the complete source is on Github

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Opal, Ruby, and Browser Game Life

### What is the significance of Opal in the browser game life?

Opal is a Ruby to JavaScript source-to-source compiler. It is used in the browser game life to write the game logic in Ruby, which is then compiled into JavaScript. This allows developers to leverage the power of Ruby’s elegant syntax and powerful features while still being able to run the game in a web browser, which typically only supports JavaScript.

### How does the game life work?

The game life is a zero-player game, meaning its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input. A player interacts with the game by creating an initial configuration and observing how it evolves. It’s an excellent example of cellular automaton, where each cell’s future state is determined by its eight neighbors.

### How can I use Ruby in my own browser games?

To use Ruby in your own browser games, you can use Opal, a Ruby to JavaScript compiler. This allows you to write your game logic in Ruby, and then compile it into JavaScript, which can be run in a web browser. You can include the Opal library in your project, write your Ruby code, and then compile it using Opal’s build tools.

### What are the benefits of using Opal for browser game development?

Opal allows you to write your game logic in Ruby, a language known for its elegance and readability, and then compile it into JavaScript, which is universally supported by web browsers. This means you can leverage the power of Ruby while still being able to run your game in any web browser.

### How can I get started with Opal?

To get started with Opal, you’ll first need to install it. You can do this by adding it to your project’s Gemfile and running bundle install. Once installed, you can start writing your Ruby code and then compile it into JavaScript using Opal’s build tools.

### What are the keys in Dead Cells?

In Dead Cells, keys are items that are used to unlock doors and access new areas. There are several types of keys, including the Emerald, Ruby, and Sapphire keys, each of which unlocks a different door.

### How can I find the Emerald, Ruby, and Sapphire keys in Dead Cells?

The Emerald, Ruby, and Sapphire keys in Dead Cells can be found in various locations throughout the game. They are typically hidden and require the player to explore and interact with the environment to find them.

### What can I do with the Emerald, Ruby, and Sapphire keys in Dead Cells?

The Emerald, Ruby, and Sapphire keys in Dead Cells are used to unlock doors and access new areas. Each key corresponds to a specific door, so finding and using these keys is essential for progressing through the game.

### How does the pickup system work in Dead Cells?

In Dead Cells, pickups are items that the player can collect throughout the game. These include weapons, power-ups, and keys. Once picked up, these items are added to the player’s inventory and can be used at any time.

### How can I improve my skills in Dead Cells?

Improving your skills in Dead Cells requires practice and strategy. Understanding the game’s mechanics, mastering combat, and learning to effectively use pickups and keys are all crucial aspects of becoming a better player.

Benjamin Tan Wei Hao
View Author

Benjamin is a Software Engineer at EasyMile, Singapore where he spends most of his time wrangling data pipelines and automating all the things. He is the author of The Little Elixir and OTP Guidebook and Mastering Ruby Closures Book. Deathly afraid of being irrelevant, is always trying to catch up on his ever-growing reading list. He blogs, codes and tweets.

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