The only pattern I use is a CSS grid I created myself after extensively using the following grids: The 960 Grid System (http://960.gs/), the grid from the Skeleton boilerplate (http://getskeleton.com/#grid) and the custom CSS grid generator of the Variable Grid System (http://grids.herokuapp.com/).
This is my CSS grid: http://codepen.io/ricardozea/pen/d6ab6e0293be9b6bac2e16ad37942ed5?editors=110
As you can see, all you need to do is change the width on line 17 to anything you want, everything else will automatically fall into place.
Other than that, I don’t use any other patterns because each project has its own patterns so reusing them from other projects isn’t something that works for me.
I am not a fan of CSS frameworks. At all.
I used Bootstrap for a few months at this one job but that was because they had already been working with it, so I didn’t have any option. The experience was alright.
If you’re in a team, using a CSS framework makes a lot of sense because it levels the playing field for everyone, especially for those web designers/developers with big egos because everyone has to adhere to the same rules set by the framework.
However, if you’re building something yourself using a CSS framework is more work than necessary unless you’re putting something up fast.
Building something custom based on a CSS framework is just too much backwards engineering.
In the past I also used the 320 and Up boilerplate from Andy Clarke (http://stuffandnonsense.co.uk/projects/320andup/) [project that is no longer maintained] and although I was able to finish my project, I knew I wasn’t going to use it ever again. The sheer amount of SCSS partials was too overwhelming, editing something meant having to hunt down the partial and then the line, rather than overriding the original values with a custom rule.
My patterns are more on my workflow: I have a Sublime Text snippets for a full HTML5 page (https://gist.github.com/ricardozea/4155401) and a basic one too (https://gist.github.com/ricardozea/4155405) and a lot more.
I keep a personal list of Gists in GitHub that I reference all the time: https://gist.github.com/ricardozea. I use GistBox extension for Chrome: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/gistbox/caoihfibgoiiakncomhccbflmlgjaohf?hl=en