Firstly, you cannot run ".exe" files on any Linux natively.
You will need to call up an emulator (like WINE).
Secondly, that command includes many variable declarations. You cannot simply call that on a command line because none of those variables have any reference in that context.
Is the "tesseract" application located on the Linux machine? Where (exactly) in the filesystem is it? Do you have a Windows emulator to use for this?