Yes. Python comes with a gui library called tkinter. No installation hassles; your gui capabilities are up an running once you install python. However, wxpython is a better gui library, so at some point you'll probably want to install that.
python also can be used as a server side programming language for web interfaces. python can be used with cgi, fastCGI, and a new interface called WSGI. python also provides a clone of java jsp pages, called psp pages. There are also several frameworks available. For more information see here:
I tried it once, quite some time ago, and took an instant dislike to it
I know the languages you do if you strike C# from the list, and I think python is the best of the lot. It's almost impossible for me to code in C++ anymore because of all the braces and semicolons I have to type. In any case, C/C++ and python are a good combo because if you need some speed you can rewrite parts of your python code in C/C++ and then call those functions from python.
For image manipulation, python has the the python image library(PIL). For more sophisticated graphics and animation, there is pygame.
Additionally, there are two offshoots of python, called jython and IronPython. jython is python with the ability to access Java classes. And IronPython is an MS strain of python that does windows specific things. When comparing the different offshots, python is called CPython to distinguish it from jython and IronPython.