Correct referrers

If I look to my website statistics, I see that there are lots of referrers from sites that I don’t know. Most of them are weird Russian sites. These sites haven’t put any link to my website, strange how they get to my site.

So I wonder how they get to my site, and why they’re counted as a referrer.

Probably they have some sort of script somewhere on their website, that redirects constantly to other sites, so the other sites see them as referrers?

My question: which statement is (in)correct, or are they all (in)correct:

  • if you click on a link on a website X, it is counted as a referrer from site X ?
  • if a javascript redirects you to a website X, is it counted as a referrer from site X ?
  • if a site opens in an iframe on a website X, is it countedd as a referrer from site X ?

Anyone can help me with this strange question?

You omitted

  • if a site visits a page with a spoofed HTTP header, the spoofed referer header counts as a referrer

My guess is because some sites have publicly visible logs, these are attempts to get backlinks to those sites.

Can you do anything against it?

If you get framed by some other site, you can do this:
<script type=“text/javascript”>
if (top.location != self.location)
top.location = self.location;

but what about that http header spoofing stuff?