So if I choose any language/framework to learn from Django/Flask , NodeJS or PHP, are there any features in any language among these which one can accomplish but another cannot? Also which is the best language for a beginner to back-end?
Are there any features which a certain back-end language can accomplish but another can't?
Generally you can build the same features using any of the languages you mentioned, although certain languages are sometimes better suited to certain tasks. Node, for example, is very good for building apps that use real-time data (e.g building a chat app using websockets). You could do this with PHP, but it’s not baked in to the language and won’t be as straightforward.
PHP is a very popular choice for several reasons: The learning curve is not too steep; Hosting is widely and cheaply available (although this is less of an issue now that you can spin up your own server for $5 a month with a company like Digital Ocean); The language was designed to work on the web, so a lot of useful functionality is baked in; and a lot of help and support is readily available.
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