Excerpt from Full Stack JavaScript Development with MEAN


Chapter 1Introduction
Table of Contents
The Rise of Full-stack JavaScript
The Node.js Ecosystem

Web programming is a task that takes years to truly understand. Part of the complexity comes from the sheer number of moving parts. Effective programmers need at least a basic understanding of many topics, including networking, protocols, security, databases, server-side development, and client-side development, amongst others. For many years, this also included working with a medley of programming languages.

Client-side programming alone requires an understanding of three languages: HTML for markup, CSS for styling, and JavaScript for functionality. While front-end development has its own complexities, the good news is that development is more or less locked into the “big three” languages. The server side has been a different story altogether. The server has been the domain of languages like Java, PHP, Perl, and just about any other language you can think of. The majority of web applications also utilize a database for data persistence. Historically, communicating with a database has required developers to also understand SQL.

Creating a simple web application requires developers to understand HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, and a server-side language of choice. In addition, there’s no guarantee that the server side will be written in a single language. Optimistically, developers need to understand at least five separate languages to create a simple app, and that’s without considering the data interchange format used for client-server communication. Remember, the x in Ajax stands for XML. Many web applications have recently moved away from XML in favor of the simpler JSON, but this is still another layer that developers must understand.

Although HTML, CSS, and SQL aren’t strictly considered programming languages, they each have their own syntax and quirks that developers must know. Completely understanding five “languages” and constantly context switching between them is a daunting task. If you’ve ever attempted this, you have likely mixed up syntax on more than one occasion.

This has lead to specialization among developers with different teams working on front-end and back-end development. Unfortunately, this doesn’t always ensure that projects are completed faster or with higher quality. In fact, it often results in more back and forth, debates, and programmers who are less knowledgeable about a project’s big picture. There was a very clear-cut need for a language to be used across the entire development stack. The remainder of this chapter explains how JavaScript grew into the role of a full-stack language in a way that no other language could.

JavaScript has long been the de facto standard for client-side scripting. JavaScript burst onto the scene in 1995 after Brendan Eich developed what was known as Mocha at the time over the course of just ten days. In September 1995, Netscape Navigator 2.0 was released with Mocha, which by then had been renamed LiveScript. JavaScript finally settled into its current name by December 1995. The name was chosen because Netscape was attempting to ride the coattails of Sun’s Java programming language, which was trendy at the time.

During the initial browser wars, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator were constantly trying to one-up each other. As a retort to Navigator’s JavaScript, Microsoft released its own implementation, named JScript, with Internet Explorer 3.0 in August 1996. JavaScript was submitted to Ecma International, an international standards organization, in November of 1996 and JavaScript was standardized as ECMA-262 in June 1997.

Earlier on, JavaScript earned a reputation as being a language lacking in performance and only used by amateur developers. Yet browser vendors invested a lot of time, energy, and money into improving JavaScript over the years. The result is that modern JavaScript engines are highly optimized pieces of software whose performance is far beyond anything of the original JavaScript interpreters. On the client-side, it is unlikely that any competing languages (such as Dart) will dethrone JavaScript in the near future, as it's the only language supported by every major browser. Couple that with overall improvements in computing, and the result is a language that is suitable for just about any general-purpose computing task.


In 2009, Ryan Dahl created Node.js, a framework used primarily to create scalable network applications. Node.js is built on top of Google’s V8 JavaScript engine (the same one used in Chrome) and Joyent’s libuv, an asynchronous I/O library that abstracts away the underlying platform. Node made JavaScript a viable alternative for server-side programming. Additionally, Node provided a full system JavaScript API that was never really achieved before due to the sandboxed environment that browsers provide. With the advent of Node, JavaScript developers could access the file system, open network sockets, and spawn child processes.

One of Node’s top features is the ability to pack a lot of functionality into a small amount of code. Node flaunts this right on the project’s home page. The code that follows is taken directly from the Node home page, and implements a trivial web server in just six lines:

var http = require('http');
http.createServer(function (req, res) {
  res.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/plain'});
  res.end('Hello World\n');
}).listen(1337, '');
console.log('Server running at');

Listing 1-1. A trivial web server written in Node

There’s no need to fully understand the code now, but we’ll provide a quick rundown. The first line requires the http modules, which provide functionality for creating HTTP clients and servers. Next, a server is started that listens on port 1337. When a connection is received, the server responds with the message Hello World. The last line of code simply prints a message to the console in order to let the developer know what's happening.

The Node.js Ecosystem

Node was not the first attempt at a server-side JavaScript implementation, but it has certainly proven to be the most successful by far. One way of gauging a technology’s popularity is by the size of the ecosystem around it. Node has been adopted by huge companies like Walmart, PayPal, LinkedIn, and Microsoft. It has even given rise to completely new companies such as StrongLoop, NodeSource, and npm, Inc.

Perhaps even more impressive than the list of companies using Node is the collection of third-party modules being developed for Node. In the few short years since Node’s creation, over 77,000 third-party modules have been published to npm, Node’s package manager. According to Module Counts, a website that tracks the number of modules in various repositories, the npm registry is growing at a rate of approximately 170 modules per day at the time of writing. The next closest package manager in terms of growth rate is PHP’s Packagist at 73 modules per day. Figure 1.1, taken from Module Counts, illustrates the growth of the Node module system compared to various languages’ package managers. npm has been annotated for your viewing pleasure.

Growth of various package managers

Figure 1.1. Growth of various package managers

With the sheer number of modules available, developers can typically find at least one to solve just about any problem they encounter. (Of course, these modules are in various stages of development, and not all are production ready.) As previously stated, one of Node’s biggest use cases is the development of web servers. So, as you might expect, there are a number of modules that implement web servers. The most popular of these modules is Express, which currently powers more than 26,000 web applications around the world. Based on the Ruby language’s Sinatra framework, Express is self-described as a “fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework for Node.js.” Express will be explored in detail over the course of several chapters later in this book.


While Node was invading the server space, another movement was gathering pace in the world of databases. For years, the primary method of working with data stores had been to issue SQL queries to relational databases. Yet there’s another type of data store that doesn’t rely on SQL. This class of database, known as NoSQL, doesn’t even use the familiar table structures of relational databases. NoSQL databases store data in a variety of formats, such as documents or key-value pairs, and are less rigid and structured than relational databases. This lack of structure often leads to simpler prototyping and ease of development. NoSQL databases tend to be slightly faster, as there’s no need for them to enforce the rigid table structure of relational databases.

In 2007, a company named 10gen (now MongoDB, Inc.) began working on a NoSQL database that would become a component in a planned platform as a service (PaaS) offering. In 2009, the database known as MongoDB (a play on the word humongous) was open sourced. MongoDB is a document-oriented database that stores information as Binary JSON (BSON) documents. By using a flavor of JSON, Mongo is incredibly simple to read and write objects from JavaScript code. Just as Node replaces another server-side language with JavaScript, MongoDB replaces SQL with queries based on JavaScript objects.


While JavaScript has always been a client-side programming language, its use in the browser has changed drastically over time. Back in the Netscape Navigator days, JavaScript was used for very simple page interactions. Use cases consisted of tasks such as changing an image’s src attribute on mouse over or powering collapsible menus. The effects were simple, but provided a level of interactivity unable to be achieved with HTML alone.

As technology continued to evolve, JavaScript evolved with it. A major breakthrough for web applications came with the widespread availability and adoption of high-speed Internet. This opened the door for Ajax applications that make background requests instead of full page loads. Network performance is key in Ajax applications, as a slow connection will make the page appear unresponsive. Applications gradually transitioned towards fewer and fewer page loads, and more Ajax requests. Eventually, the Single Page Application (SPA) was born. In the strictest sense SPAs have just a single page load, and request all other data via Ajax calls.

AngularJS is one of most popular frameworks for creating SPAs. Angular was created in 2009 (a busy year for JavaScript) by Miško Hevery and Adam Abrons. Angular owes much of its popularity to being backed by Google, Hevery’s employer. It applies a model-view-controller (MVC) approach to web applications, and has several noteworthy features. First, Angular provides two-way data binding between views and models. This saves developer time, as Angular automatically keeps everything in sync. Another interesting feature of Angular is that many tasks, including templating, can be done in augmented HTML.

Angular will be covered in greater detail later in the book, but it’s worth looking at a partial example now to illustrate how powerful it really is. Here’s an Angular controller named PeopleCtrl that sets the people property in the data model:

app.controller('PeopleCtrl', ['$scope', function($scope) {
  $scope.people = [
      firstName: 'Colin',
      lastName: 'Ihrig'
      firstName: 'Adam',
      lastName: 'Bretz'

Listing 1-2. A simple Angular controller that manipulates a model

The people property of the model is an array containing two simple objects representing people. Now here’s an Angular view template that can be used to display the model data:

<div ng-repeat="person in people">
  {{person.lastName}}, {{person.firstName}}

Listing 1-3. A simple Angular view template

The <div> is just a standard HTML <div> element, while ng-repeat is known as an Angular directive. This particular directive is employed to loop over the elements of an array, and the double curly braces are used to access data from JavaScript. For now, there’s no need to completely understand what’s going on here, just realize that Angular takes care of a lot of tasks for you out of the box.

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