User role and permission in laravel

Greeting to my Seniors,
Im trying to learn Laravel framework, for project having multi-authentication user having role like super-admin, admin, manger and user.

  1. Super-admin: can view all data of all user (admin, manger, user) can modify,delete their data, create user with all roles
  2. Admin: can view all data of all user (manger, user) can modify,delete their data, create user with all roles excpet super-admin.
  3. and so on for others role.
    im following tutorial on internet where instructors:
  • Create separate table for user
  • Create separate table for role
  • Create seprate table for permission
    and inter-link them with forgeign keys.

Cant we simply create user table with column roles which will have user roles (like:: super-admin,admin…etc) on creating new user
auth: if user role=== super-admin{
create new user
delete user
view post of all user
Please englight me why we need separate table for user, role, permisson

So the general rule of thumb will be “database normalization”. This isnt really a Laravel concept, as it is a general database concept.

If every Admin has the same permissions, you dont want to store the permissions over and over in the table. Consider this: I want to store if someone has permission to modify 3 different pieces of data (A,B,C). I will call those permissions mA, mB, and mC.
I will have 3 users; Alice, Bob, and Charlie.
Bob and Charlie are my admins.
All admins can modify A,B, and C.

I could store them all in one table:

Name Email isAdmin mA mB mC
Alice 0 0 0 0
Bob 1 1 1 1
Charlie 1 1 1 1

But… there’s not really much point in it, is there? If I know Bob’s an admin, I already know he can modify A B and C because that was one of my rules. So I dont really need to store that information about him; i know he’s an admin, so he has mA, mB, and mC. We could leave those three fields out of the database.

Name Email isAdmin
Alice 0
Bob 1
Charlie 1

Great. Now i have stored all the information i need.

But maybe I make this configurable. Maybe the Super Admin can decide… no, Admins shouldnt get mB.

Well i need to be able to change that somewhere where the system knows my rules have changed. So i’ve definitely got to write mB in somewhere. But i dont really want to have to write in a 1 or a 0 for EVERY user, that uses up a lot of space if i have… a million users, and if the superadmin changes his mind later, i would have to update a million rows to make sure the change was made. That seems like a lot of effort.

So that’s why we do it in multiple tables.

Lets say the super admin has decided admins get mA and mC, but not mB.
I could write out a single table called Users:

Name Email isAdmin mA mB mC
Alice 0 0 0 0
Bob 1 1 0 1
Charlie 1 1 0 1
SuperAdmin 1 1 1 1

but that’s a lot of numbers. The information i want to store is “Admins should have mA and mC, but not mB”. Notice i didnt mention Bob or Charlie by name there. The information I want to store is about the ROLE, not the individual USER.

So at this point, I need a new table. Roles. That way, I can have my role table (Note: I’m going to add an ID field here):

ID Name mA mB mC
1 User 0 0 0
2 Admin 1 0 1
3 Super Admin 1 1 1

I’ve now stored all the information about roles I need. And my User table can remain pretty simple:

Name Email Role
Alice 1
Bob 2
Charlie 2
SuperAdmin 3

A single number in the Role column tells me all i need to know.

So why does it suggest 3 tables to you?
What it’s trying to do is create the idea of flexibility. If later on, you decide you want to add a new permission, you’d have to modify the table, and the queries related to that table throughout the code, and etc.

If however, you make it ‘generic’, you can more easily adapt your code.

What they’re probably trying to suggest (I cant see your tutorial) is the idea of a Join table.


  • A User has a Role
  • A Role may or may not have one or more permissions
  • The list of permissions is not hard defined at time of creation, and/or may be added to by external items (addons, plugins, patches, etc).

Wow, your explanation made crystal clear for my all doubts. Thank you for your effort and time

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