A shell script would be the equivalent.
That said, I would just use putty to login to the server via SSH and then try to run sudo apt-get install golang -- probaby 65% chance it is a modern version of ubuntu so that should just work. If it isn't it will just say the apt-get command not found (which tells you you are not running Ubuntu or anything else debian based) or package not found. If it says package not found then you might want to try the 2nd set of instructions.
Now, I took a gander at your host and it seems they are likely running CentOS, which is a flavor of enterprise linux which means there are not apt repositories. But it is ok because you've got yum and you've probably got the EPEL repositories setup so you should be able to just run sudo yum install golang and it will install. If you don't have EPEL ask the hosts and they should be able to hook that up though I have yet to see an EL web server configured without EPEL as so many things depend on EPEL packages.
The underlying point is that if you are using non-ghetto software and a non-ghetto flavors of linux downloading tarballs and installing manually you are probably doing it wrong.