By default tables "shrink to fit" the content. The column relative wdiths are proportional to the content within each column.
So for example if column one just had numbers 1 to 10 it would be quite narrow, if the next one had a name in it, that would be a bit wider, if the third column had a whole sentence that would be much wider.
This makes table naturally responsive to an extent. As the window narrows, so will columns. But the minimum width a column will go by default is defined by the longest "word" (string un-broken by a space) the column contains. It can be further reduced if required by adding hyphenation vis css.
But often if a table has many columns, it just can't squeeze enough to fit on a mobile screen.
That example is a little different and misleading as it is lists, not tables.
Maybe give an example of the data you are presenting to decide if it is tabular or list based.
Generally a list in one dimensional data, a single row or column of related data. Whereas table shows two dimensional data where multiple rows and columns relate and may be cross-referenced.