Hi Samuel Moren. Welcome to the forums.
The bedrock of the web is HTML and CSS, so I'd advise you to start there. There are many good books, online courses and web resources (blogs, forums etc) for learning these. (I recommend starting with a book, then moving on to the other options to consolidate.)
A server side language is also good to have, although again, that's a steep learning curve. You listed a whole bunch of them (like Java, PHP, ASP etc.) but you only need one to get the job done. The most standard route to go is to learn PHP. Then you can build fully functional, dynamic websites. Again, though, there is a massive shortcut: use a content management system (CMS), which is a software package written in something like PHP that has all the functions already written for you. Using a CMS, you can have a very snazzy site up in minutes. Then, over time, as you learn how PHP works, you can modify the functionality, and in the end, create your own CMS if you are so inclined.
You can offer great web design services with a good grounding in HTML and CSS, and by using jQuery and a CMS. Then, gradually, learning more about JS and PHP, as time permits.