I have been programming for about half a century, beginning with COBOL (I learned FORTRAN first but I have never used it outside a classroom).
Something you are very much aware of that I want to emphasize is the inconsistency of languages for the various environments. We have website server languages and website client languages and we have desktop languages. It is very unfortunate that we do not have one language for all. I do not know much about Python, perhaps it can be used in all three.
There are many things I do not like about C# but it is the best language I know of for use in websites. It is unfortunate that it is not used client-side.
I first tried using Java back in about 1993 and could not get it to work in my Windows system; I had the impression they did not place much emphasis on getting it to work in Windows back then. People that were not active in programming back then are mis-informed. Java originally was a website client-side language. I am surprised it is being phased out client-side.
I don’t understand the popularity of C. I do not see why C is favored over C++. I think C++ is a great language and it is unfortunate it is not used for websites. There have been efforts to make C++ available for websites and when something is successful then it will be more popular. They need to provide binary portability of C++; traditionally it has been source-level portable. The binary portability will provide a virtual environment and therefore it can be used for websites.