YES! ... the only similarity is J-A-V-A ... an unfortunate naming convention from "way back when".
For the other items in your first list, may I suggest a great place to get your feet wet is http://www.w3schools.com/ , with the exception of Python (which I am sure the "Big G" can find for you).
As for 1 through 5:
1 - yes for websites, can't say for the apps as I have not done so myself
2 - as many as possible, but your first list is a great start
3 - absolutely! ... and the price is right
4 - can't say there as I have never used it, but again, take "free" when you can get it
5 - W3Schools is a good starting point, IMHO, and for tools, may I suggest Notepad ++ for the text editor
All the best and a very good idea to enhance your future employment enjoyment!