I'm wondering how to do the following, here is a simplified example:

Let's say I have a database of pictures of animals. A search for "pets" is performed and it loads a page of thumbnail images. Somewhere on the page is a list of other search criteria (text link or checkbox) that would narrow the initial returned results. An example would be "cats", "dogs", "hamster", etc.

Is there a way after the initial search is performed that the results could be further filtered without having to hit a submit button and reload the page?