Multiple pages without repeating the site structure
I have multiple pages on a site I'm working on. Each page has the same header, menu, and footer. The only thing that changes is the content. Presently, I have to copy and paste the page layout for each page. It's a pain, especially when I want to make changes. I know it is possible to build a site and "load" the content into a content section of the page. That way, changing the layout in one file, changes all the pages.
What is this technique called and how is it accomplished? Is it possible without server-side scripting?